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Anxiety Disorders

Several studies indicate that anxiety disorders are very prevalent amongst individual of all ages. Anxiety is a chronic uneasiness or apprehension that persists without any direct threat to the individual. The disorder is diagnosed when the anxiety becomes so severe that impacts negatively on an individual’s normal functioning. Anxiety affects a person’s whole being as it is a physiological, behavioral and psychological reaction all at once. On the physiological level anxiety may include bodily reactions such as rapid heartbeat, muscular tension, queasiness, dizziness, dry mouth and/or sweating. On the behavioral level, it can impact negatively on your ability to act, express yourself, work, attend school, focus, and attend to and complete tasks. Psychologically, anxiety can be experienced as a subjective state of fear, uneasiness and/or apprehension. In more severe states, it can cause you to feel detached from yourself and even fearful of dying or going crazy.

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

OCD is an anxiety-based disorder characterized by recurrent, negative thoughts which the individual finds distressing and often accompanied by rituals (or compulsions) which the person engages in to reduce their anxiety. About 2-3% of the general population suffers from OCD. It occurs in children, adolescents and adults.


Obsessions are recurring thoughts, images, or impulses that seem senseless but continue to intrude in one's mind for long periods of time. These thoughts are excessive and usually unrelated to real life problems. It is almost as if one's mind is "stuck" on these ideas or images.


Compulsions are behaviours an individual engages in that temporarily reduce the anxiety created by obsessive thoughts. Patients come to (irrationally) believe that the ritualistic behaviours are the only way to prevent the bad thoughts from becoming reality. The most common obsessions include washing, checking, and counting.

Obsessions may occur by themselves, without necessarily being accompanied by compulsions. About 25% of patients who suffer from OCD have obsessions only and these often revolve around fears of harming a loved one and/or something bad happening to a loved one.

OCD is often accompanied by depression as well as phobic avoidance of situations, events, or things which trigger anxiety.

The article entitled, A College Student Tells His OCD Story, was written by an actual patient who first developed symptoms of OCD at nine years old. He presents with the more common form of OCD which entails both obsessions and compulsions. He describes his struggle to overcome the "vicious cycle" of anxiety that fuels OCD. He is at presently functioning extremely well and completing an a doctorate in psychology.

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Understanding Depression

by Dennis Kalogeropoulos, Ph.D. and Anne Lam, BA.

Mood disorders are common across all age groups, cultures and societies. Individuals suffering from episodes of depression are classified as having unipolar mood disorder, while those alternating between episodes of depression and mania and are diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Mood disorders present with a variety of cognitive, affective and behavioral symptoms and are correlated with an increased risk of suicide.


Although the precise cause of mood disorders remains unknown, researchers have identified possible risk factors that include biological, psycho-social, interpersonal and socio-cultural variables. In worldwide clinical practice, the classification of mood disorders relies on criteria delineated in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), published in 2013 by American Psychiatric Association.


In order to arrive at a precise diagnosis and a suitable treatment plan for each patient, the cognitive, behavioral, emotional and somatic symptoms of mood disorders must be assessed by a health practitioner. Depending on the circumstances of each case, the treatment could involve psychotherapy, medication or both. Lifestyle changes, social support and psycho-education about mental health can also be useful in preventing the occurrence and/or recurrence of a mood disorder.

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Couple Therapy

There is almost universal agreement among couple therapists and researchers, regardless of theoretical orientation, that conflict is inevitable in a marriage or in any long-term dyadic relationship. The aura of the honeymoon fades when the couple makes unromantic decisions about where to live, how to budget money, share domestic routines and responsibilities, when to visit those unbearable in-laws, if and when to have children and how to raise them, as well as negotiating the changing nature of gender roles.


These potential sources of conflict must be handled by any two people living together, whether they are married or not, whether they are of the opposite or same sex. Authorities agree that it is how couples deal with such inherent conflicts that determines the quality and duration of their relationship.


When couples do not acknowledge and/or attempt to resolve conflicts, dissatisfaction and resentment continue to deepen and eventually take their toll. It is at the critical point that some of these distressed couples will seek professional help.

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Sexual Difficulties

Sexual dysfunctions and disorders are common amongst people of all ages and across many different cultures and socioeconomic strata. Despite the wide availability of information on sexuality in academic and popular books as well as the internet, there are still widespread misconceptions and myths about sexuality which often exacerbate the sexual problems individuals experience.

Common sexual dysfunctions in males are: erectile disorder, premature ejaculation and inhibited ejaculation. Common sexual problems that women present with include inorgasmia and pain during sexual activity. Both males and females can also present with lack of desire and/or arousal as well as sexual aversion.

Sexual problems are often caused by multiple factors that sometimes include both physical and psychological components. A detailed, thorough assessment is required in each case to determine key contributing factors and to suggest the most appropriate treatment(s).

Sex Therapy is a CBT based therapy developed by Masters & Johnson over 50 years ago which has been shown to be an effective treatment for many sexual dysfunctions. The link below outlines the key components of Sex Therapy as well as a list of recommended self-help books for individuals experiencing sexual problems.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

ADHD is a neurobiological disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Inattention refers to the inability to concentrate on a task. Impulsivity is the tendency to respond quickly without considering the consequences of one’s actions. Hyperactivity refers to behaviour that involves excessive motor activity, fidgetiness, restlessness, and an inability to sit still. Individuals with ADHD could display some or all of the above symptoms. The behaviour of ADHD children impacts on all areas of life including the home environment and the quality of their family life. The first article examines the impact of a holistic approach to intervention, on quality of life, for families of children diagnosed with this syndrome.

About half of all children with ADHD have a concurrent learning disability. They are easily distracted, they produce work that is carelessly executed and they give the impression that they are not listening or have not heard what they were told. These behaviours often lead to problems with academic learning.


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